the following work about Jineolojî was published by DÖKH, the Democratic Free Women’s Movement in Northern Kurdistan on July 17th 2013 here
“The realities to be disclosed by Jineoloji will of course not have less true words than the knowledge produced by many disciplines as theology, eschatology, politic, pedagogy and sociology. It is a well-known fact that women constitute the largest part of social nature with respect to both physics and semantics. Then, why should not she become the subject of a very significant science, which is a part of this social nature? The decline of sociology to constitute Jineoloji, despite having scattered into many pieces as pedagogy involved in the education and manners of children, can only be explained by its being a discourse of sovereign masculinity. As long as the nature of women remains under darkness, the whole social nature would be left without enlightenment. A real and comprehensive enlightenment of the social nature is only possible through the real and comprehensive enlightenment of women. The disclosure of the status of women from the history of exploitation to economic, social, political and mental exploitation will contribute the clarification of all other historical issues and all spheres of today’s society. Ethics and aesthetics is an indispensable part of the science of women. It would be right for the science of economy to develop as part of the science of women. Economy is a social activity wherein women have had a primary position. Women’s freedom, equality and democracy movement including feminism will, for sure, play a predominant role in the resolution of social problems.”
Jineoloji (the science of women) discussions have had the quality of a magical concept in the shift to a new phase that might well be called the establishment of a women’s paradigm in the freedom struggle of Kurdish women. Jineoloji, being a proposal for a method to build a feminine mental world, signifies a radical intervention to the dominant male mentality and all related paradigmatic processes. In that sense, Jineoloji points to an epistemological process. Direct access of women to the knowledge of women, and actualization of the scientific production of her knowledge will reshape women individuality and women sociality. Jineoloji, meaning the access of women to the nature and sources of feminine knowledge by means of establishing, interpreting and signifying their own discipline, will thus further skepticism and criticism addressing the production, interpretation and conceptualization of knowledge by dominant male mentality and search for ways for a counter-production. Jineoloji — giving way to discussions on scientific side-branches as women social sciences, women economy sciences, women history sciences, the history of women sexuality, women and demography, and so on — has received extensive attention.
Questions such as, ‘why the science of women,’ ‘why Jineoloji,’ have been and must be frequently asked, as part of the nature of the process. Nonetheless, parallel to this investigation, women will further the methodological deciphering of power-seeking male-dominant structures undermining the history of women’s philosophy, science, religion, mythology and morality, as well as analyzing herself via methods based on her own mind, intelligence and emotions.
The knowledge that those who cannot think for themselves cannot govern themselves, hence cannot be free, is the point of departure of Jineoloji’s search for truth. Abdullah Öcalan, as part of his freedom sociology, defines the reasons why search for truth, freedom of women and democratic modernity powers cannot overcome sovereign power as the lack of the capacity to systematize and historicize the series of values based on equality, justice and freedom. Not being able to overcome power and the series of state values via systematization and historicisation amounts to being in a position to be governed and disposed of. In other words, it amounts to not being able to think for oneself, not being able to govern oneself and not being able to get out of the equation enhancing the seizure of power. The precondition of systematization and historicisation is the completion of mind building in a paradigmatic scale.
Hegemonic systems could only sustain their power structures and exploitation to the extent that they could mentally enhance their paradigm formation. As long as subject-object dichotomy, being the philosophical depiction of power and exploitation, is fictionalized in natural and social structures, the society is prepared for dichotomies as subject/men, object/women, subject/master, object/slave, subject/state, object/society through analogous methods of thought. The paradigms having subject-object dichotomy at their center are results of the mentality of power aspiring to convince women/society to be governed and guided.
The mental instruments of power as mythology, philosophy and science found on the dichotomy between the subject and the object have firstly been developed in the production of social sexism. The realization that it could not transform relations between men and women to property relations without the establishment of a social sexist paradigm leads to the understanding that it is veritably male economy politics, as property over women acts as the magical formula leading to a domino effect to develop all other forms of private property, hence women deem it necessary to establish their own science of economy. Thusly, women and other democratic modernity forces are obliged to steer for building their alternative systems and establishing respective values to achieve this objective so as to overcome great emancipation problems. Jineoloji is thus the dialectics of solving the emancipation problem of women through overcoming power-seeking paradigms and establishing of new ones.
We cannot come up with paradigmatic solutions only based on the critique that science is controlled by men and realizes sexist perceptions as a result of the quantitative superiority of men. In order to overcome today’s emancipation problems, we need to see, first and foremost, the fact that science is the domain wherein male mentality organizes itself the best and science itself is male personality. It would be inevitable to call it as male as long as it does not make a radical intervention to analytical, objective, experimental, cold-blooded and rational science. Jineoloji thus aims at getting outside the power-seeking scientific system and developing an alternative mental system.
However, Jineoloji is a proposal of method having very recently been open to discussion and therefore it requires to be discussed, evaluated and contributed by women organizations, women intellectuals and women movements. Jineoloji is not a political or social current, but it is certain that there exists confusion in that respect. Women movements and social currents are not in reciprocal relationship with Jineoloji, on the contrary, they have roles in reciprocally developing and, affecting one another and structuring each other’s mental processes. It is obvious that this discussion process will be deepened by women’s ideological structures and social movements so as to be furthered by institutionalization.
Let’s ask questions
The 21st century will be the century of emancipated women and emancipated society with respect to the resolution of sexual conflict having revealed itself more and more poignantly. It is significant to be in organizations and structures approximating with this claim. Do we aspire to develop Jineoloji based on this assumption? Do we develop Jineoloji in a way to endow it with the scope to be an answer to his requirement? Do we approach the problem as part of this requirement and consciousness? We need to adopt an approach to deal with Jineoloji based on the requirements of our era, as it is the task of the science of women, the science of society to become the answer to this era with respect to its essence and scope. Jineoloji will, up to a certain extent, be the ground to meet world woman movement on a more solid basis.
We need to sustain and deepen discussions on Jineoloji. The discussions that we are to lead are significant for our study. Those discussions would inform us on , ‘what Jineoloji is, what is the scope of it?’ as well as this study could be better organized with opinions and ideas towards its organization. The discussion to be developed as such could also cover the requirements.
As women movement, we have a very strong legacy and experiences. Making use of this legacy, we can develop the power and organization to encompass the entire society in Jineoloji studies. Do we need such a study as Democratic Free Women Movement? to what extent are we aware of its necessity? It is significant to ask this question and answer it as we begin to dwell on the subject. As women movements, we need to analyze the phase we are in and where we stand. The more correctly we analyze it, the more we adopt a strategic meaning and approach regarding Jineoloji. Developing innovations in our mentality, point of view and organization would increase the sustainability of our freedom movement. This would, in some sense, be a significant ground to update the women emancipation ideology once more, universalize it and make it vital. It will be both an address of resolution, meaning a mental expansion, and a solution proper to the era we live in.
In dealing with the instruments of capitalist modernity, we need to deeply analyze sexism. Will Jineoloji be a comprehensive analyses and overcoming of social sexism? Will it be a domain wherein women would make the freedom perspective vital and develop solutions with that respect? Are we determined by such a requirement? Approaching the issue based on these requirements would grant us with a strategic approach in both establishing our perspective and enhancing a stronger organization. It is important to adopt it as a change-transformation process for us without condemning it to our personal perceptions, approaches. We need to adopt the tenet, “the freedom of woman is the freedom of society” as the basic reason for struggle.
Although we have searches and efforts to realize the revolution of consciousness and mentality against the destructive policies of the mentality of male hegemony, we are highly meager in being a solution to what there is.
Jineoloji will push our limits. That’s indeed what it shall do. We cannot take a serious step stumbling on the limits. We say the women science, which is in itself a matter of courage and will. It is in itself a huge struggle just to enhance the legitimacy of this study. Our understanding and approach would be significant in the way we get to work. How can we come up with an attitude and organization, if we cannot bring the issue into consciousness? We cannot, otherwise, show an alternative stance and organization.
Let’s read, let’s discuss assiduously, let’s share those discussions, let’s, so to say, be in a sustainable production. In short, it is vital to solidly determine our priorities and be in a struggle to overcome them in this sphere. If we cannot overcome them, we cannot achieve a strong organization for our Jineoloji studies. We may well develop a name or a symbol, but it cannot be strongly developed neither institutionally nor functionally.
Now we will deal with Jineoloji conceptually, theoretically and functionally. In other words we will try to discuss and answer questions as: What is Jineoloji? What is the objective and scope of Jineoloji? How shall it organize itself?
Jineoloji literally means the science of women. “Jin” means woman in Kurdish. It is derived from the word “jiyan” meaning life in Kurdish. This word is used in Indo-European language primarily in the Middle East as “zin” or “zen” or “woman” meaning “life, vitality.” As it is well known, woman sex is accepted as the first to have self-consciousness. Women are the first to develop all innovations in life. In other words, life is surrounded by moral and political values by the woman. Collectivity is developed on this basis. Women are the ones to build the natural society with moral and political values. That’s why women come to mind when we say life and life comes to mind when we say woman. In a different sense, life occurs within the body of women. The pregnancy and monthly menstruation reveal the role of women in sustaining life. Women are associated with life with respect to the development of both vital values and corporeality. There are indestructible bonds between women and life. Woman is more encompassing with regard to the reality of life. She is, on the other hand, more responsible than the male sex. It is indisputable that women incorporate the widest part of social nature both physically and semantically. That’s why women are so much identified with life. In that respect, Jineoloji as the science of women is also the science of life.
What does Jineoloji incorporate theoretically? Jineoloji would turn all values regarding women into scientific data. It shall adopt an approach to criticize what is given and overcome it so as to achieve this objective. It is important to develop epistemology to have access to accurate knowledge and consciousness in all domains starting from history, society, philosophy, art, economy, science, demography. It is important to deal with and discuss the history of sciences and knowledge structures to handle the content of Jineoloji. Jineoloji will have its content so long as it makes an encompassing research on these two issues and reveal the existing deceptions and mistakes. Jineoloji, thusly, develops through the overcoming of what there is. It is impossible to come up with an essential framework with respect to Jineoloji. Hence, we need, first and foremost, a serious study and reading on epistemology.
Epistemology is the theory of knowledge. It analyses principles, assumptions and consequences of various sciences as the branch of philosophy dealing with the structure and validity of human knowledge. It tries to determine their logical origins and objective values. It is the philosophical discipline discussing how we know what we know and the validity of this knowledge. In short, it is selection of right and wrong knowledge. The specification that “Knowledge structures of the capitalist world system are in a crises as much as power and production-accumulation instruments. The fact that information structures are naturally more inclined to free discussion provides us with wide interpretation opportunities concerning the dimensions of scientific crisis. The role of information in social and power structures might have significance incomparable to any previous era,” is highly important. Revolutionary developments occur in informative, scientific instruments of social life. A radical renewal in epistemology is required so as to develop a new social science.
We benefit from four methods of thought in interpreting history and society: mythology, religion, philosophy and science. We make a selection amongst the information produced in those four domains according to their accuracy. We incorporate each of these four methods so as to reveal what they accept and what they refuse. We also need to develop a method and dialectics based on the methods and dialectics of these four domains in order to develop an accurate interpretation of history and society- which we call historical society- and make science truthful.
Social sciences and Jineoloji
Jineoloji needs to have an analyzing capacity primarily in social sciences in order to develop a new theory of mentality. We need to discuss the following before starting our studies: Where to situate Jineoloji in the social sciences. It has been regarded as a branch of social sciences. There have been people asserting that Jineoloji constitutes the essence of social sciences, it shall be thus developed in parallel with the social sciences. Our discussions on this issue have not come to an end. It is also controversial whether we already need to come up with a definition. It is a process of discussion, a process that we have just started, a process that is going to find a definition of its own as a result of the continuity of the discussion. However, Jineoloji will at first provide a renewal as an alternative to existing social sciences. It is therefore important to properly understand the current shift in social sciences. We need to have a holistic approach to social sciences and re-define them, this time more rigidly, with the help of the methodological clarity we thusly attain. It is vital for Jineoloji to attain a definition and a method based on all those criticism and definitions.
Positive scientists have developed physics, chemistry and biology in Europe, being the center of modern social sciences. They tried to define and know the Nature. This search for definition and recognition was in fact a way to control it. Based on this effort, it has thus been far uttered that the nature sustains itself via certain laws and these laws are valid everywhere. These universal laws were conceived as rigid, stable and unchangeable. As we already mentioned, their will was based on a mentality dominating nature from outside and nature was thus an other to them. Those data formulated in physics, chemistry and biology are defined as phenomena. Those phenomena remained within their own limits, as a cognitive level capable of getting beyond those definitions has not been developed. Human collectivity was tried to be defined based on these formula thought to be scientific data. Society, as well as nature, has been regarded as an object. Universal, unchangeable and rigid laws have been established for the society. Society has been defined as a phenomenal object. Same solutions are presented to problems faced by societies in all geographies, climates and historical periods. It has been thought that solutions to be created by powers would result in the same consequences. Social relations, conflicts and problems have been thusly approached. However, such an objectification of human society having in fact a different and colorful nature resulted in bluntness for humanity not enlightenment. Of course, social sciences have gone through segregations within themselves in doing so. As the interests and tissues of the society have been disintegrated, those tissues have turned into different domains of social sciences. For instance, politics is a discipline that has always been within the social life. However, social sciences have disintegrated this discipline from the society and handled it to some certain people. In doing that, it has regarded politics independent and other than other related disciplines of social sciences as philosophy, economy, social-politics etc. With the disintegration of the disciplines of social sciences, they have been dissected from each other having consequences similar to the dissection of parts of human body. This disintegration in social sciences has been spread to the social body. This has mostly fed and strengthened the civilization system.
Over disintegration in social sciences has resulted in multiple consequences and problems. Another consequence is the scientific crises. All those approaches have resulted in crises and chaos for the human society. Those considering themselves as the builders and centers of modern sciences have not yet been able to solidly analyze the reasons of this chaos. In order words, problems in social sciences are not considered as fundamental questions. The field of study of social sciences is society. However, how accurately it deals with and resolves social problems amounts to the issues we discuss today. Although some circles have significant efforts with regard to this problem, we are far from having a holistic and analytic approach. This results from the fact that knowledge structures are power-oriented. As long as the knowledge structure is power-oriented, social sciences have not been able to get out of the power circle. From Marxist social scientists having asserted to introduce an alternative social life to social scientists of the opposition, the social systems having been established have turned into fresh blood to nourish the power. Jineoloji thus dwells into the source of all these failures as the consciousness and organization to overcome the power structures so as to develop a renewal in the domain of social sciences.
The fact that the problem of women being one of the fundamental questions of the society has not even been comprehensively evaluated in the domain of social sciences is one of the leading questions to be resolved by Jineoloji. The current social sciences have drifted the society personified in women subjects to the edge of chaos. They have defined women as the weakest and less powerful members instead of depicting her as the member commencing the sociality as such. Women have been considered as a trouble and kept under severe isolation in today’s societies as part of this definition. One of the fundamental problems is that social sciences cannot play its role as the power to find a solution to problems faced by women in today’s society. In order for the social sciences to deal with the problems of women as social problems, Jineoloji requires comprehensive analysis, evaluations and definitions with respect to this sphere.
We can consider Jineoloji, being the science of women, as a branch of freedom sociology from the perspective of social sciences. Jineoloji, within the long run, needs to situate itself as a social science within the framework of cultural sociology, structural sociology, positive sociology and especially freedom sociality. Jineoloji having such a strong position with respect to sociology would become a basic and the most dynamic branch of alternative social sciences as to freedom. Accordingly,
A- As a sociological discipline that has its effects in the long run, it will encompass the existence of women in cultural society, ties of women with basic social structures as culture, language, art, religion, in this respect women-child relations, the dichotomy between women and men, relations and their conflicts, the history of the development of sexuality, the relations of sexuality with ethics-aesthetics and economy, its role in the socialization of women, the phenomenon of family, economy, the development of social spheres as ethics, ecology, aesthetics based on an axis on women and its impacts on today’s society.
B- It also encompasses, as part of structural sociology, the origins of women-oriented sociality, mythological and theoretical systematics of Neolithic matriarchal society as part of material and spiritual culture, institutionalization of political and moral organs, the relationship between structure and function in women-oriented socialization, the disclosure and definition of scientific foundations of mother-goddess culture in its archeological and historical dimensions. Jineoloji will also thoroughly reveal the influence and reflections of all these aspects in today’s society.
The status of women with respect to religion-state-power-sovereignty-production-class-division of labor, as the basic foundations of patriarchal state based civilization being the antithesis of women oriented sociality shall also be strongly analyzed as part of the structural sociology. Women labor and he history and mechanisms of the exploitation of women in economy, sexuality, family, ethics, aesthetics, encompasses a critic of existing system from the point of view of women, the relationship between women and power, the relationship between women and morality, women and politics, the forms of existence and resistance of women in central civilization system. Within this perspective, it is required to develop an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of both the slavery of women in central civilization and “codes of slavery interiorized by women themselves.”
C- It encompasses events and phenomena in short or medium span of time within the scope of positive sociology, as the role of women in systematical change and reform processes, the use of women in wars for sovereignty the impact of them on women, the forms of the production of women and sexism, the relations of power mechanism working against women and the structural problems of the system, the changes in that sphere, dominant women models of each era and their relations with the system, the relations of demographic changes and the exploitation of women, the role of women in various social and historical events.
D- With respect to freedom sociology, it encompasses the theoretical and philosophical framework of the freedom of women, the bonds of the freedom of women with society, the historical development of the freedom and resistance of women, feminism, women-oriented critic of sovereign social science conception and knowledge structure and an evaluation of an alternative social science conceptualization based on the freedom of women. The development of a balanced unity and synthesis of emotional and analytical intelligence in that respect will encompass comprehensive issues as the phenomenon of democratic family and the principles of free relations, the establishment of the bond between science and ethics and the corresponding development of women semantics and hermeneutics. It also encompasses the democratization of politics based on positive constitution, meeting/synthesis of the perspective of the freedom of women with the perspective of social freedom, problems regarding the constitution of the socialization of free women and its relations to the democratic civilization, the comprehension of alliance among other subjects and fields of research.
Jineoloji is as much interested in the development of an alternative system of life as an independent knowledge and thought structure. Based on this approach, resolving social problems would be possible with the help of a new point of view in all spheres lead by history, science, economy, morality, politics, society and corresponding structures. We cannot find a solution to the problems of this society and reconstruct it without a structure of knowledge, point of view and an illuminating thought structure. It is certain that we will enhance it with the help of our renewed information, consciousness and organization. The content of Jineoloji will thus be a renewal and maturation in this respect. As part of this perspective, the question on the objectives of Jineoloji also comes into prominence. The first objective is based on the clarification of the position of women from the history of exploitation to historical, economic, social and mental exploitation and establishes the bonds between the historicity and timeliness of women. In that sense, it makes the question visible.
Method and Jineoloji
In making the problem visible, Jineoloji should determine its roadmap and method. We say, the problem of women is the problem of society. What is the role of structures of thought in defining, deepening and making insolvable the problems of women with respect to their historical-social dimensions? We need to clarify it. For instance, what was the role of mythology regarding problems of women; similarly what were the functions of religion, philosophy and science in that respect? That’s what we are supposed to disclose. It is important to have clear opinions about how to tackle with those four issues as well as clarifying what role and function the problem of women had with respect to these methods of thought. As we already discussed at the beginning of our text, we need to be selective in terms of information. Jineoloji will be the process to adopt an accurate point of view with respect to women through a selection to be developed on these four methods of thought. Jineoloji will develop the process of differentiation in content and form of mythology, religion and philosophy in search for the truth. As the differentiation of instruments will lead to the differentiation of content, it might also lead to the development of a new alternative. Jineoloji might in that sense be considered as a new process. Jineoloji, to be endowed with a new theory of mentality, will pave new paths for the science as well. Jineoloji will achieve this with the sustainability of a lively power of thought having gained access to a unity of universal and particular based on natural dialectics. In that sense, it will become the new field of enlightenment for women.
We need to deal with women as a social reality and disclose what belongs to her by way of making her existence visible corresponding to this reality and determine how and as to what measures an emancipation would be actualized. So as to correspond to this reality, a scientific expression to the specificity of the existence of women would be a new step to be taken by the sexist science and the linear ground of the fight against the system. In that sense, Jineoloji acts as a scientific discipline.
Against the sexist science: Jineoloji
Science is an intellectual activity addressing phenomena in the universe through systematic research and experimental data without ignoring intuition and assumptions. It is indeed a small part of philosophy having access to finalized information. Any issue or formation having a unity of reasonable relations and opinions within itself is a subject of science. Science has become an advanced method of thought concerning the power of human being to act-react, engage and change within a lively universe. It is a fact that science is not based solely on analytical mind but it is a product of a long historical and social development and experience. In that sense, science is the product of social mind reaching the power of self-transformation and change. It is also a fact that knowledge has been separated from its own origins and the integration of society-nature through its transformation into an instrument for power. The transformation of knowledge into an instrument for power is realized through disengagement with morality. This disengagement has been the greatest blow on knowledge and alienated it from its real essence. Science is the domain wherein this fact is mostly crystalized and expressed in its barest form. Science has thusly become the domain wherein sexism against women has been the most intensified.
The sexist structure of science is not limited to excluding, othering and ignoring women. We see different forms of sexism in its view of primarily society, universe, nature and history. The fact that women could not develop a definition for themselves and resolve their own problems through addressing such a new approach in a time when so much has been said in the name of science still requires to be understood. The relationship between information and power and hence monopoly of power based on knowledge has resulted in defining women within the framework of male hegemony. Therefore, we cannot evaluate separately this dual approach of sexist scientific world towards women. On the contrary; the infrastructure of sexism and one of its most significant justification tools is science. “Science is sexist.” Sexism, from the time of its foundation based on hierarchy, has been analyzed as an ideology of power. Therefore, science based on sexism, resulting in power for men, slavery for women, indefinite identities, otherness, alienation to oneself and the production of deviance for life. The science itself is structured as a male god. Social sciences have thus laid the foundation for social engineering of the constitution of society with respect to male hegemony. The era we are in is also called the age of science. However, science does not involve women in such an age of science. The slavery of women and hegemony of men are still justified through sexist data based on science. To strengthen my argument with a few examples:
According to the sexist scientific world, the genetic structure of women and men is the same by 99 pct, different by 1 pct. Sexual different –or inequality- is thus considered to make a difference. They tell us not to ignore this difference. When we ask why, they say the genetic structure of apes and human beings differ by 1 pct and 1 pct of difference is what makes one an ape and the other a human being! Again, men are said to be “plural” while women are ‘singular” based on this same genetic difference. This also results in the following: men can live with many women; they can cheat on them as it is a part of their nature. This genetic difference creates 45 physical differences between women and men. The heart of men is bigger than the heart of women, they say, as their brain is heavier than that of women. Violence hormone is prevailing in men, they say, while sentimentality prevails in women. Violence is dominant over sentimentality and that’s why men are dominant, they say. These absurdities uttered in the name of science are also good signs of ignorance prevailing in this domain. All these data also signify that science has been evolved as a male science; as well as a religion. Sexism is the one that is mostly nourished and justified by those data.
The contribution of psychoanalyst Freud to sexism
Through the method of psychoanalysis, Freud has strengthened and deepened the sexism prevailing in science. Having developed his sexist data especially at a time when the first circle feminist movements were at rise, Freud aimed at destroying and refuting the arguments of women emancipation struggle. Freud, indeed, believes that the slavery of women is a biological phenomenon that cannot be changed. As to Freud, woman “is a man born crippled.”
What is done by Plato saying “woman is a deficient creature, she is an incomplete animal as a human being” in the domain of philosophy is done by Freud in the domain of science. Having been stuck in phallus-vagina mentality, the aim of Freud was to restrict the life of woman to sexuality. The feminists of the time were in the middle of having serious discussions on the fact that it was woman who created most of the innovations in social life, they were also active in writing their theories. One of those arguments was that it was a woman who first discovered the fire. It is of course possible to discuss this argument based on historical data and archeological excavations, but Freud once more proved to be a successor of a spurious, usurper and cunning male culture with the opinions he developed to refuse these arguments. Let’s have a look at his argument: well, he says, it cannot be a woman who discovered the fire as she does not have a penis to extinguish it through peeing on the fire! It is the result of reared up masculinity even to propose such an absurdity and obsession in the name of science. He insistently claimed that the structure of women was first and foremost determined by sexual functions, which have highly comprehensive influence on them. He considered being a woman as a very significant influence and asserted women to be “a sub-human for whom anatomy is the destiny.” Twentieth century scientists having risen in a patriarchal culture based all their evaluations and pseudo data on the biological features of men and women saying man is active and woman is passive. Freud and his successors justified male hegemony and the slavery of women via all those evaluations and to a great extent accelerated sexism in the name of science. It is as old as the civilization itself to transform the biological difference between woman and man into a social difference so as to use it as the justification of inequality and male hegemony. Male dominated culture, in the domains of religion, philosophy and science, has always been in consensus on its belief that women are ‘deficient’ and immature creatures. They justify this argument by again and again making reference to a single argument: women by its nature should only give birth to children and not interfere in anything other than that. She shall not advance her thought, intelligence and mind. These are all men’s affairs. It would be against nature for women to enter into the picture. She would act against her own nature! This is one of the assumptions in attributing overly sexual qualities to women and seeing her merely as an object-body. Science has been the domain wherein this assumption was mostly strengthened.
The structure of science puts the blame on women as to their current status. Assuming the prevalence of violence in male biology and emotions in female biology, the science itself considers violence to be active and emotions to be passive. Social roles are thusly shaped according to those definitions. Social Darwinism provides the strongest foundations of sexism. Strong one rules over the weak one; it oppresses, devours on, destroys the weak and this is presented as a law of nature in a way to define the status of women accordingly. The ideological basis considering violence as strength and emotion as weakness is the lexicon of a power-driven mentality dominating through force and representing freedom as weakness. Again in 17th century, scientists were not allowed to use women in their experiments as cadaver. That’s why they used to secretly dig out women out of their graves to make experiments on them. They used to make researches on the body of woman. They mostly dwelled on the womb and defined the entrance to the cervix considered by some to be flexible and others rigid as hymen. Therefore, virginity turned into a symbol in the social structure. Conquest, just as in social wars, thus defined the right of men to be the first one to conquer the women. This symbol has been the determining factor deciding on the life or death of millions of women up until our current society. Men have strengthened themselves based on the absence or presence of this symbol in women. Hence, it would not be wrong to come up with this definition: hymen is the gift of science to men. However, nowadays it is gruffly admitted, also scientifically, that there is nothing as an organ or a veil that could be defined as virginity membrane. Then, it would not be wrong to come up with the argument that virginal membrane is the product of male mind.
It won’t be possible to define the social position of women without overcoming the sexist structuring of science and without a serious renewal or rearrangement in science. As it is well known, there has never been up until now a discipline or branch in social sciences other than gynecology approaching women as a scientific subject.
A discipline used to control women’s body: Gynecology
Gynecology is one of the youngest medical branches. The wisdom of women in the natural society and in many village societies in today’s world has not been centralized, but instead developed as a field of natural solidarity based on thousands of years of experiences and culture. Gynecology has defined the physiology of women as a medical branch regarding diseases and problems. It encompasses the operation of the feminine body with respect to fertility and problems related to it. The reasons why fertility, being in fact such a natural function, and related physiological functions have been that much medicalized are undoubtedly related to the rearrangement of control over women’s body and the demographic structure of the society according to the requirements and policies of power-driven system.
The monopolization of birth control at the hands of state and medicine in the name of protecting the health of women, sterilization or transformation of women’s body into a birth machine are products of male dominant system’s ethnic cleansing and genocide policies or nationality or racist-chauvinist nation-state policies. In this respect, the problem of birth shall be considered as part of social freedom and the freedom of women especially based on the self-consciousness and will of women. Today’s “women maladies” including the recently emerging breast cancer or uterine cancer stem from intervention to the nature of women aiming at having an excessive control or sovereignty over it. However, the fertility of women is a social, economic, cultural, socio-psychological issue related to the material-spiritual integrity of women that cannot be reduced to a mere physical or biological operation. Medicalization of the fertility of women as a branch of industry resulted in the ignorance of feminine identity alongside with the fragmentation of social mind and culture. Birth and related problems on demography are within the scope of Jineoloji. It is inevitable for Jineoloji to deal with the issue as part of social freedom in a way to reveal possible methods of struggle. It is highly dangerous to separate childbirth from its philosophical and social foundations and making it an operation devoid of ethics and aesthetics as part of male dominant sovereignty approaches and such an operation is no doubt been embedded in statist-patriarchal system.
Redefinition of science
The science has been discussed as part of the development of rationalism, in order words capitalism. We first need to deal with the first conditions for development of science in order to properly define it. How are we supposed to define all discoveries and innovations of the Neolithic Age? Innovation developed in Neolithic Age and even in prior socialization forms are equal to the innovations of the 16th century. In that respect, it is one of the fundamental duties of Jineoloji to re-define all innovations of the Neolithic Age and prior forms of socialization. In Neolithic society, there used to be an immense sociality and culture developed around women. The innovation of plants, their blending, farming, cultivation sawing and developing tools to protect the products are the biggest scientific advances. Again the domestication of animals, benefiting from their wool and milk, making clothes and weaving carpets as well as procurement of food are also included in this process. The discovery of wheat, its cultivation in a way to be able to make use of it, its transformation into flour and making bread, the discovery of fire and making use of it are all great scientific innovations. All those innovations result from thousands of years of women labor and experiences. Everything we eat, drink and wear is a product of this process. The procurement and use of all raw materials in life are realized through the sustainable labor chain of women. As all those innovations and discoveries are once more solidly expressed within the scope of Jineoloji, the essential sources of science will be even more strongly redefined and determined. In this respect, considering Neolithic Age and the history of women emancipation based on scientific data would enhance our advance as women in the way to freedom. Jineoloji, based on this foundation, shall redefine the social function and character of science and clearly reveal what science essentially is. In doing that, it is necessary to consider science with respect to other methods of thought. It needs to have a holistic and dialectical approach. Jineoloji shall develop new definitions and significations to all issues, as well as making studies to make ontology and history of women visible. Redefining the relations of women existence with philosophy will be an answer to all distortions and smears towards women. Separating science philosophy and intuition that much has resulted in its monopolization. In order to endow science with an accurate and social definition, we need to reestablish its bonds with ethics and aesthetics. In this respect, Jineoloji will purify science from the male mentality and reestablish it in a social axis. Science can have access to its essence and resources as well as a proper definition only based on this foundation.
The rebel of the oldest colony: Feminism
It is important to discuss feminism as part of Jineoloji in order to encompass its historical and social values and lineage. Jineoloji will after all be founded on the lineage of feminism. In that respect, it needs to be more profoundly enlightened and endowed with a critical approach. We call feminism as “the rebel of the oldest colony.” Despite its deficiencies, feminism has a great role in making the problem of women visible. It has enlightened the phenomenon of women, although in a restricted manner. The struggles of feminist movements known as first, second and third circle have created a significant ground for those discussions. They have proposed vital arguments with respect to the problem of women: “Woman is the first oppressed class, nation and sex. The exploitation of women results in the exploitation of the society,” they said. In a similar vein, capitalist modernity says “waged workers are slaves” regarding the workers. They have made many significant arguments concerning many spheres of life. However, they could not develop women organizations as much as they could not develop a definition of freedom covering the concept of slavery interiorized by women. They have been integrated into the system as they could not overcome the limits of patriarchy and Western democracies.
Moreover, the fragmented structure of feminist movement also served the civilization system. Approaching the problem of woman from a narrow legal-political equality standpoint and being highly fragmented in itself, feminist movements contributed to liberalism. In fact, liberalism has been developed on this basis. Feminism could not overcome positivism in its analyses of social sexism just as it could not analyze the masculine statist civilization in its integrity. Jineoloji will analyze the causes of this failure on the side of feminism in its relationship to existing definitions of women. In this respect, Jineoloji will be the grounds for purifying feminism from the impacts and limitations of sovereign system and establishing an alternative women freedom perspective and systematics.
Jineoloji, in encompassing feminism, will have a predominant role in the resolution for social problems so as to advance freedom, equality and democracy movement of women. Jineoloji will not suffice itself to criticize women movements, but it will also criticize civilization and modernity making women invisible. Doing so will pave the way for the creation of alternative women-oriented social currents, movements and systems. Jineoloji will develop meaningful solutions to attain this objective. Investigating women as a social entity and giving this investigation a scientific definition will provide an important expansion in the emancipation movement of women as well as granting an historical and social perspective to the freedom of women. Jineoloji will, in some sense, deal with feminist movements having either been marginalized or interiorized within the system.
There are also academic women studies having developed as part of the development of women struggle. There are many significant academic studies having developed as part of numerous institutions, organizations and platforms, though remaining elitist, being involved in intense discussions and researches. In Turkey as well as around the world, archive studies have been developed under the leadership of academicians from various circles. Women library studies have also gained a pace within the scope of universities. Significant researches and discussions might be developed in those circles. They have important researches and arguments concerning the problem of women and its history. We also have various women academicians. All those studies are highly important.
We always come up with the following argument in discussing about the civilization and power: the power has organized itself on an accumulation and thus gained a certain level of sustainability. However, women have not been able to contribute to this accumulation according to their own values. This is amongst the most challenging problems of today’s world. Jineoloji will give significance to all those studies, researches and labor both historically and practically to play its part in the socialization of women. It would be among the tasks of Jineoloji to develop strong relations and share its findings with similar institutions, circles and individuals not only in Turkey but also around the world especially in the Middle East.
How are we going to integrate these studies, experiences and values or how and on what foundation are we going to meet all these values, what kind of an organization are we going to create? Giving an answer to all those questions is also within the scope of Jineoloji. Jineoloji will make all those issues a part of its agenda so as to discuss, criticize and turn them into the basis for the development of studies and new sharing platforms. Paying attention to common grounds as well as differences, Jineoloji will be the basis for strengthening, deepening and sustaining common points. Especially when gyneological studies become a part of academic studies, all those issues will be more strongly adopted and a common platform would be created for women scientific studies.
“Democratic modernity cannot be achieved without an academic cadre”
Jineoloji greatly values such studies and aspires to establish platforms and grounds to discuss and cooperate with different circles. Apart from advancing collective work with academic circles and individuals; we aim at developing alternative women academies to organize our own studies. The more we develop and the stronger we organize alternative women academies, the more Jineoloji studies will accomplish their social organization with respect to their scope and essence. In this respect, it is significant to be strongly organized in dealing with these studies. Establishing academic cadres is important for both Jineoloji and Free Women’s Movement. Academic cadre signifies the brain, free will and organization. In order words, it is the one that is aware of intellectual, moral and political duties and adapts them as a lifestyle. Jineoloji will in this respect primarily be the space to develop academic cadre. Free women activism will thus be rapidly developed.
Jineoloji will be grounds for a radical struggle not only against the reality of women as slaves, but also against the reality of women aspiring to have power, having a mentality longing for power. We will be in a radical struggle against both the reality of weak, feeble minded, vulnerable women, but also against the reality of individualist women advocating power. Cadre will once more be the space to discriminate and radicalize measures for acceptance and refusal as part of the struggle. In other words, Jineoloji will be the focus of all these studies and struggle in terms of setting up our cadre and getting involved in the militant work. This will also be considered as the fundamental preamble for struggle.
Jineoloji might be organized around women political centers, women aesthetics institutes, faculties of women language and literature, women culture and art academies, women social science academies, women history academies, free women academies, women, children and health centers, natural healing research centers, led by women’s science centers. It is certain that it will have a strong functionality, once it attains such a structure.
Methods and approach so as to make women problem visible
Another objective of Jineoloji is to make women problem visible. Again, we need to define how and with what method to approach the problem of women. It is important to define the identity of women primarily as part of her social identity. The existence and self-consciousness of women cannot be attained through men. Women’s source of existence is based on social nature and natural socialization. Woman has the most encompassing social identity of the history. Therefore, not men but statist civilization system and mentality having attained various forms and mentalities breaking society off its essence is what is genuinely against women. Reducing such a far-reaching and radical conflict to a conflict between sexes, only orienting to this conflict is to belittle and narrow the problem. We have been experiencing this very problem having its sources in women history in our daily lives. We still have serious problems in considering the struggle amongst sexes as a social struggle and developing a strong point of view of, stance and struggle as to it. This challenge even detains us from a successful struggle conception and style. Women are what make societies real, what embodies it and endows it with a continuous flow. In this respect, Jineoloji will become the domain wherein the identity of women and the struggle amongst sexes are properly defined and radicalized. Jineoloji to resolve the problem of emancipation of women with respect to its far reaching, in-depth theoretical, philosophical, social and historical origins will be the domain in which women history, resistance and existence would be redefined.
Jineoloji, based on all these definitions and scientific data, will try to organize itself in all domains including ethics, aesthetics, economy, demography, history, ecology, politics, epistemology, anthropology, and physiology. It will revitalize the renewal in social sciences by way of dealing with all those domains from an integral point of view. All those issues have highly far reaching consequences. Organization in such domains will require a great labor and struggle as well as a long span of time. Studies to be initiated in a few domains can be expanded in time and become sustainable. What is primarily important is to see what kind of an approach Jineoloji will adopt in organizing itself on those branches. With the help of the sustainability attained in these discussions, a strong and working perspective will be developed.
The following are the issues to be encompassed by Jineoloji:
Ethics and aesthetics in making life more beautiful and independent
Ethics and aesthetics are amongst the primary domains of Jineoloji. If we are to answer the question why, we would say Jineoloji is defined as a science of both women and life. Women have also been in a more responsible stance with respect to life. She has properties encompassing life. Therefore, woman is responsible to make life more beautiful and independent. Therefore, Jineoloji is the discipline which is supposed to have the most theories and functions in terms of ethics and aesthetics. Ethics, above all, seeks for a truthful life. How can we create a truthful life? What values shall it be based on? Ethics is endowed with the consciousness, will and power of a truthful life in answering those questions. It proposes human beings proper decisions and enlightenment on which values to adopt and what choices to make so as to have an independent life. Ethics sustains existing searches and investigation on the way to freedom as well as leading to a stance against all mentalities and structures restricting human freedom, ignoring them and imposing slavery. In other words, it inoculates humans the consciousness of a proper life as well as a consciousness, ambition and determination of struggle. Aesthetics is the search for beauty. In that sense, what is the relationship or the bond between ethics and aesthetics? What is true is what is beautiful and what is beautiful is what is true.
People thinking, speaking, acting truthfully are those thinking, speaking and acting beautifully. The integrity of ethics and aesthetics has resulted in beautifying, emancipating values in the social sphere. However, the rupture in this relationship with respect to social civilization system results in corruption, ugliness and desertification. Both for the women and the society, the biggest search and struggle for truth shall be the integrity of essence and form so as to manifest itself in beautiful thoughts, beautiful deeds and beautiful words. Then, we cannot deal with beauty without ethics, as the source of beautiful thoughts is philosophy. Philosophy expresses an integrity and flexibility to enhance the coexistence of emotional intelligence and analytical intelligence. In this respect, philosophy is not only the love for knowledge for women; it is also a source for beauty.
The most insidious and the dirtiest trap of capitalist modernity is cosmetics developed in the name of beauty. Investors of capitalist modernity in cosmetics and fashion industry fragment the body of women into cadaver pieces and give a financial value to each piece. Today, women are used as commodities in films and televisions. Sexist media is the most significant domain feeding and encouraging all those ugly politics. This is a reality we see and witness every day. There comes a woman in all advertisements, be it a car, a gum, a carpet, a mobile phone or a shampoo. Certain beauty measures are imposed on us and we are told to be that size, this weight and that length. The spiritual and corporeal health of women is subjected to breakdown via those sexist policies. Women are weakened and made prone to many diseases as a result of those sexist policies. The diseases of models are amongst them. Breast cancer resulting in silicone implantation having recently been on our agenda is also the consequence of an intervention on feminine body from outside. It is consequences of making the women’s body an Other. This Otherness makes women unhealthy and damages her natural composure.
Women are separated from aesthetic and ethical values due to an approach based on property emanating from the male mentality. This is what damages the natural composure of women. Sexist measures have taken the place of natural composure. No deed resulting from slavery and sovereignty can be natural. Being natural is an act having been shaped as part of the consciousness of freedom. Women shall save themselves from all conceptions and approaches based on property gaining so as to be endowed with an ethical and aesthetical consciousness and behaviors. Women shall be saved from all conceptions and approaches leading to dependency, weakness, lack of will, shortly slavery.
Cosmetics-fashion sector is one of the leading sectors in the exploitation of the body, emotions and thoughts of women. The body of women has been turned into the biggest commercial monopoly. As a result of those policies, women have been alienated the most from their bodies. Women have hard times in having harmony with their bodies as a result of all those ugly sexist policies. For instance, sexist media has developed advertisements and tv shows reflecting feminist women as excessively masculine. These ugly policies aiming at smearing, belittling and disabling the emerging emancipation demands of women have attempted to be turned into overall social judgments. They are all deliberate attempts because we are pushing the limits of power and patriarchy. The freedom struggle of Kurdish women threatens it also in cosmetic-fashion sector as it is the case in all spheres of life. That’s why they are assaulting us indecently.
Another purpose of sexism is to consider and reshape women in all spheres of life with respect to men. They are also trying to do it in cosmetics and fashion industry. The main purpose is again to make women desirable for men, to reshape her according to the taste of sovereign men. The more subtle this reshaping operation, the more commercial monopolization value it has. Women are considered via a process of giving commercial value to each and every piece of her body, her eyebrow, her eyes, her waist, her hair, her hands, her nose. Women are almost reduced to an ornament. That kind of reshaping resulted in women’s integral adjustment, including their thoughts and emotions, according to men. In other words, there is nothing left to woman to think, sense and act for herself. She needs to get out of this picture in order to have something for herself. Women need a strong struggle in this domain based on the consciousness of their own identity. Jineoloji will strongly resolve all these problems in ethical-aesthetical domain and become the field of struggle to endow women with a nature proper to themselves. In strongly analyzing women in ethical and aesthetical domain, Jineoloji will save them from beauty definitions and adjectives imposed on them by the given society. We need to aim at developing a new essence and form by attainting to a strong philosophical consciousness and aesthetics. The saying “beautiful is intelligence and intelligence is beauty,” points at the necessity for women to be involved in the search and struggle for philosophical consciousness and aesthetical values. It is necessary to develop an immense education effort and organization to endow women with ideological and philosophical consciousness.
Life without philosophy is a life without truth for women. Women can only reveal their truth by was of a strong philosophical consciousness. We need an ethical consciousness to reveal the truth, understand it and let it guide us. The main starting point of philosophy is to reject what is given to us. Be it intuition, curiosity, longing, love or consciousness, philosophy starts from the rejection of what is given to us. To what extent philosophy is dominant in our lives, how philosophical our lives are according to this conception? All those questions are important for us, women. For the freedom to have a presence in deeds, it shall first and foremost has a presence in the deeds, thoughts and emotions of women. Not a single ethical value can repair freedom without being embodied. Ethics and aesthetics are quite important for the freedom to be embodied in us. Jineoloji considers this sphere as a vital part of social life and thus it endows women with a strong consciousness and organization with respect to ethics and aesthetics. Women having developed the very reality of socialization will be purified from all the nonsense imposed by the sexism being a power-seeking ideology. It will make the values and measures of freedom more visible with the help of such purification. It will approach woman to her own ontological reality. Jineoloji will deal with all problems of women in ethics and aesthetics and reveal the power of women based on ethical and aesthetical theories and organization. Ethics as the social consciousness and common mind, aesthetics to beautify life and endow it with its naturality will be amongst the domains mostly dealt with by Jineoloji. We need radical thought and perspectives as to what a good, beautiful and truthful life is and how to develop it. Ethics-aesthetics will be developed as branches of the science of women with respect to ethical and aesthetical consciousness and organization.
The natural, social profession and act of women: Economy
Economy will also be a fundamental part of Jineoloji. Meaning “the law of house” in Greek, economy has been developed under the leadership of women as the basic democratic deed of the society. Resulting from the fact that sociality has been developed based on the relationship between the mother and the child, labor of women both on her child and the social life has determined her status. Nutrition possibilities developed under the leadership of women are the basis for economy. “The real owner of economy is the woman despite all conquest and exploitation efforts.” Woman has become the real inventor of economy as she has developed various opportunities with respect to nutrition. Economy having been developed in Neolithic age under the leadership of women did not have any danger or threat as it was based on basic requirements. Economy having developed according to the needs of moral and political society had democratic communal features.
Cunning and strong men have entered into home economics like a thief and plundered all economical values developed under the leadership of women. They have imposed their monopoly on all these values and put the seeds of their first capital accumulation. Economy has ceased to give answer to the requirements of society and thus turned into the biggest monopoly of state embodied by cunning men. Relentless methods have continually been developed for surplus product and surplus value. Cunning and strong men did not suffice themselves to plunder and exclude women, being the real owner of economy, from it. The history of civilization is, in one sense, the history witnessing the plunder and theft of all values owned by women. Of course, excluding women from economics had serious social problems. Patriarchal mentality excluded women from economy and ignored the great labor of women in all spheres of life. Women have mostly left unemployed and prisoned at home, always restricted to housework. On the other hand, the work they did at home was not even considered as work. Although carrying a baby for nine months, feeding and growing it is amongst the most demanding works of the world, power-driven statist mentality did not even consider it as work. Homework was considered as valueless, trashy jobs. The work of women was thus denied with the civilization and turned into a means of profit and oppression under male hegemony.
These policies have been developed during the era of capitalist in unprecedented intensity and violence. Capitalism having never been an economy in itself and always destroyed economies has developed enmity against women and economy at all costs. Economical problem has in-depth historical social dimensions. No one and no doctrine including Marxism never mentions the labor of women, rights arising from this labor and women as the real owner of this labor. Although some socialist feminists including Rosa Luxemburg have made significant arguments on the labor of women, those arguments could not be transformed into strong political approaches and thus sustained. Still analysis and political stance have not been sufficiently developed in this sphere.
In developing the freedom of women, it is vital for the women to have a consciousness and will in economy as in all spheres of life. As we do not have sufficient strength in social life, we cannot prevent women murders. We have not yet created means to protect women subjected to violence and make them economically functional. Without those alternative solutions, we are in need of male dominant culture and we become sway of it. Having policies in this sphere having the greatest impact on women’s dependency will reach free women movement to a significant level in its socialization because economy is a significant domain spread and sustained by male-dominance and sexism. It is vital to have an in-depth approach to this problem, to deal with and analyze the problem with its historical and social dimensions and to develop policies accordingly from the women’s front.
Jineoloji shall first develop a labor-value theory based on the value of motherhood and endow women with strong policies. The fundamental reasons for struggle will thus be removal of patriarchal mentality and sexism it has created on the labor of women, as well as enhancing organization, share and development on a democratic basis. As part of this struggle, differentiations, alienations based on labor and its separation from its essence will tried to be removed. It will properly redefine economy, this time based on the labor of women, it will endow it with its real function; it will evaluate means to overcome the monopoly of brokers, merchants, money, stoke holders and state so as to make it once again social under the leadership of women. A self-sufficient economic organization will be a rupture to demand economic sufficiency from state and the institutions of power and new social structures will play a significant role in having a strong economic consciousness. In that sense, Jineoloji shall encompass not only a will to analyze problems resulting from power in the economic sphere but also overcome these problems and create alternatives.
The most threatening problem faced by our world: Demography
Another sphere of organization for Jineoloji will be demography (population). The most fundamental problems of our age take place in this domain. The problem of demography has become the biggest threat of our world today. We will of course establish links of the problem of demography and sexist and capitalist modernity because it is them who promote the boost of population. Civilization, since its emergence to today, has adopted a specific approach to the problem of population and produced policies according to its profits and interests. Dynasty and family culture in the nation-state, alongside with deliberately manipulated and boosted sexuality have resulted in ever increasing problems in the sphere of population. This problem threatens not only the society but also the nature. It is the biggest danger against the sustainability of the society and environment. This danger, even by itself, reveals the destruction of capitalist modernity.
Small state of the man: Family
The institution having revealed the mask of modernity is the failing family. This failure is also reveals the conflict of capitalist modernity and society as well as the depth of the crises and chaos. We say, the slavery of women is social slavery. Why? Because woman has a strong role in the establishment and development of sociality and she is a part of this society. Therefore, the slavery of women is the slavery of the society. Hence, the chaotic situation prevailing in today’s world regarding the relationship between men and women also reveals the chaotic situation of capitalist modernity.
Throughout the history of the civilization, family is constituted as the seed of the state. In that sense, it is considered as the small state of men. The fact that family institution has been that much strengthened throughout the history of civilization stems from its being the ground for power and state so as to feed and sustain it. Men in the family institutionalized state sovereignty in the society. While power is constituted by men within the family, women are subjected to unlimited exploitation. Women are like the wage-less workers of the house. The only and fundamental task of women is to give birth to children and to boost the power of men at home and state in society. In that sense, family is the institution wherein the ideology of the power gains the most amount of functionality. The culture of dynasty has mostly institutionalized itself based on this ideology. Men institutionalize their own dynasty as the chef and leader of the family. Considering women and children as their own private property, they constitute their dynasties based on this property. The more children the family has, the more men are proud of their dynasties. Having as much as children from more than one woman is also considered to be the guarantor of manhood. The great man is proud of it and he feels himself safe! His manhood is sufficiently boosted! He sees himself as the emperor of this world. However, lion in the house becomes a cat faced with the power of state. This is also an important issue to discuss. “Take women and family from the ground of civilization, power and state, there remains very little left” because this is the basis of the civilization. Therefore, states establish monopolies over the society, while men establish monopolies over women so as to sustain the system. Woman is, in that sense, the oldest and strongest monopoly. “Woman is the oldest colonized nation.” What are left to women, as a result of this monopoly, are unlimited exploitation, unlimited pain and continuous war and crises. Sexism objectifies woman and makes her an object of power. Therefore, throughout the history of civilization, women have been used to seduce men and multiply their power. It is significant to analyze the relationship of women with the power based on this ground. Each man has the mentality to realize his ambition for power on a woman. The same mentality is also multiplied and applied as the ambition of woman for power over one another and their children. This requires to be comprehensively analyzed as part of the power-driven sexist mentality and system. It is important to analyze the relationship of women to power based on this argument.
Giving birth to a child is not only a biological phenomenon. It is a very comprehensive and systematic phenomenon. However, power-seeking statist mentality has turned women into a birth machine with respect to her biological existence and existence for power and state. The role of women for capitalist exploitation system is clear and functional. She is forced to anything by means of free child birth and raise. The physical and spiritual decline of women goes hand in hand in the system. Problems faced by the family structure embodied by women having turned into an incubator are highly radical. As we already discussed at the beginning, today family is at the edge of destruction. We follow through the media that especially in the Western world and in many other geographies there are policies to revitalize and promote family. New laws have been issued in the USA and Germany to promote family institution. Financial opportunities are mobilized to promote having a family and children. New generations are required for the capitalist modernity to sustain itself. Today, more than half of the German society is composed of seniors. The system needs young generations to sustain itself. Therefore, it triggers family institution and child birth according to its own interests.
They state that the cause of the social fragmentation is the fragmentation of the family and underline the importance of preserving the family as the prototype of state. Turkey’s prime minister Tayyip Erdogan does not cease yelling his demand for “three children” each day. Of course, Kurds are rapidly increasing in number. Kurds are trying to sustain their lineage despite the arduous war they are in and all the losses they have had, which is the biggest danger for the system. Today, demography is one of the basic problems faced by Kurdish people. This is one of the fundamental questions for both the Middle East and Kurdistan. Nation state develops policies to sterilize a part of the population while turning the other part into an incubator according to its interests. We have witnessed sterilization policies on Kurdish nation in the name of population planning, which have all proved to be inconclusive.
Augmenting itself through lineage and sustaining the society shall also be considered as a means of defense and resistance for people subjected to genocide. However, having stated that, we need to underline the fact that infinity and power shall not be developed on children; instead it shall be based on moral and political development of the society. It is vital for us to analyze child birth and child rearing according to these priorities. In Kurdistan, families mostly have many children. The cultural and economic development of those children is also important. We need to endow them with necessary conditions for their healthy development. This reality has no basis in line with the social reality we are in. Although we, as women movement, have developed certain policies towards children and their care, it has not been enough. It shall also be discussed as to what extent Jineoloji might have radical, alternative projects in that sphere. Firstly, we need to consider child birth and child rearing as part of the requirements of economic and ecological society, which becomes one of the most important tasks of Jineoloji.
Sexuality as the domain to test and boost masculinity
Sexuality is one of the mostly deviated issues of the civilization. Reproduction, as amongst the existential problems of living beings, has been defined as instinct throughout the history of civilization and modernity, nevertheless, this definition has been developed as the most primitive method to continue one’s bloodline. Conception of sexuality based on this method has spread like a social cancer. Sexuality as such construed at the level of blunting the society has long been an instrument for power. It is thus necessary to resolve this relationship at a social standpoint. The emasculation of society embodied in women throughout the history of civilization is mostly related to exploitation in that sphere.
The History of Sexuality, the last book of Foucault, who provides us with in-depth analysis of the mentality of power in all his works, includes informed realities with regard to sexuality. Foucault says, ‘what is posed as a question with respect to the question of sexuality is above all a power issue.’ Sexuality is a domain wherein masculinity is tested and boosted the most. A woman studying in the USA, sells her body online when she has serious financial problems, emphasizing the fact that she is a virgin. Thousands of men apply to have sex with her. The desire to be the first one to have sex with a woman, the desire to possess her has developed as the result of rotten masculinity. When it comes to masculinity, there appears to be no difference between the Middle East or the West. Despite stylistic differences, the mentality and the culture being thus spread remains the same.
Jineoloji shall be able to put the problem of sexuality in its agenda, as the deepest, the mostly manipulated sphere of the society which has long been one of the biggest instruments of power. Jineoloji shall be able to once again analyze and define sexuality based on all those findings and evaluations. Sexuality is one of the most poignant issues of society. It is one of the ongoing problems which we experience day by day. We come across with this problem wherever we lay our hands be it ideology, organization or war. We can neither ignore nor overlook it. In order to find a solution to problems experienced by women in today’s society, we need to train, renew and order ourselves. Although we have considerably advanced with this respect, it is obvious that we are yet insufficient. We still have not strongly fought with our dogmas and taboos. We need to strongly develop such discussions in our women academies. It is certain that we will be more enlightened and have a theory on sexuality, as we develop such encompassing discussions. This is the domain where we are the most lost and where we will eventually find ourselves. It is our upmost duty as women to consider all problems we face in the social sphere regarding our gender and find appropriate solutions to them. Jineoloji must be one of the spheres to solve problems we encounter in that domain. Apart from analyzing sexuality with respect to the history of civilization, one of the fundamental tasks of Jineoloji must be scientifically dwell on the pedagogic position of women, her position in Neolithic society. Realities to be dug out by Jineoloji will reveal the potential of sustaining our social existence with more advanced qualities. Women, having great responsibilities over the society and Nature, shall also solve the demographic problem threatening the society and the Nature. Taking it as a goal, Jineoloji will enhance women to surpass her given structuring and participate in all sphere of life with a free mind and will. Jineoloji will thus play a significant role to develop moral and political conscience to provide women with the word and will.
The history of the slavery of women is not well known, while the history of her emancipation awaits to be written
The science of history is yet another domain to be worked on and developed by Jineoloji. When it comes to history, various interpretations and definitions have been developed. However, there is a consensus over the fact that ‘history is an interpretation of existence of what has happened.’ The more there is different existences, the more there would be histories. In order to think what shall be instead of what there is, one should definitely know what has happened, what has been experienced. Some philosophers, adopting this view, define human being as the child of history. Once we dwell on the subject in depth, we come to see that, whether or not we are aware of it, we are absolutely children of history. Knowing the past, being the history has always steered the future. Knowing the lived past and interpreting it, endows one with strong perspectives with respect to future. Awareness of the past paves the way to see not only today but also the future. The instant we are in today is the result of hundreds of years of struggles and labor. The history, as an outcome of all this labor, is a window open to future. History does not only mean to bring what there is and what has been lived to consciences, but also it is a book or book of life illuminating how we shall live.
Consciousness of history provides us with a meaning of our existence and endows us with a strong memory in saving us from rootlessness. The stronger our consciousness of history and philosophy, the stronger and the more robust our memory is. Although we have put frequent emphasize on the significance of history, what is important is how we see history. The powers of the civilizations have always investigated history and society based on the rise and fall or separation of states. This view of the power has resulted in seeing and justifying history as the history of civilizations. This historical view has resulted in bluntness and narrowness, as well as the concealment of historical facts. We have to comprehensively analyze methods we adopted up until now and their consequences so as to develop alternative methods to surpass them. We shall comprehend history neither as a linear line or a progressive march towards the anticipated goal. On the other hand, we shall not overwhelm it with excessive relativism. The saying that “the history is neither the source of evil nor a playground where goodness reigns sooner or later,” shows that the society itself is considered as the biggest force for any resolution.
One can achieve living collectively in a meaning and beautiful way, once she has a proper social and historical point of view. History is at the same time a whole and all parts in it have a place and value. All small societies, regular people, even individuals have a place in this whole. Nature has its own value in this whole. “As history has always been projected on society and society on history, the society has always been projected on the individual and the society on individual.” It is the entire parts that form the whole. It is thus significant to take all the parts into consideration with respect to the whole. The history of positivism, one of the basic maladies of capitalism, has undermined wholeness by separating history into pieces. This concealed the truth and massacred the reality. It is impossible to truly define a phenomenon, event or process without its wholeness. That’s why it is significant to know the dialectical bonds of history and base our interpretations on them. Properly defining nature and social existence with respect to a historical approach defined thusly becomes vital. In this respect, it is as important to take history into consideration with regard to a certain time and place, as defecating determinist, positivist approaches to history. Without analyzing all historical phases within this perspective, we cannot comprehend the history of civilization in its totality. If we wish to know, learn and perceive the unrecorded history more than the recorded one, it is important to know and reveal the places and times that are never mentioned in official historical accounts.
Throughout the history of civilization, women have always been excluded from the history and ignored. Since it is always men who make researches on and write history, they have only written down the history of male dominance, thus patriarchy. The history of women has been benighted and thus the society has been confined to darkness. Of course, it is not only women that are pushed out of the history. All oppressed classes, peasants, slaves and proletarians have been pushed out of history. The history has thus always been the history owned by the powers of the civilization. However, this is not the truth and reality of history. We have come to grasp that it is now, with the help of our renewed historical consciousness and philosophy. “The history of slavery of women is not well known, while the history of her emancipation awaits to be written.” In that sense, Jineoloji will be the domain to illuminate the history of slavery of women and write the history of her emancipation. Historical consciousness and philosophy is important for women. When you ask, ‘Why history?’ we say ‘to know and recognize ourselves.’ We cannot know and recognize ourselves without knowing and recognizing the history. History is one of the issues mostly dwelled on in our everyday discussions, as it is the domain where the women has been dis-identified and ribbed off their memories. It is important to be enlightened with respect to history to regain our identity as women and be entitled with a robust memory. If we want to solve all problems, be it historical or contemporary, we, as women, shall be endowed with an historical consciousness. We need to put emphasize on the importance of an historical consciousness and deal with and solve all problems, small or grand, with regard to history. We need to situate an historical perspective in all discussions and attitudes. People not knowing their history, are condemned to remain slaves. We always need to have historical education, research and interpretation. In this respect, apart from the values mentioned in histories, all lost values are being revealed and illuminated. History has been adopted as the collective manifestation of all values. Jineoloji shall be a domain to endow us with a stronger historical consciousness and philosophy. We have serious problems with respect to our historical approach. We still have problems in developing a holistic approach to history. Positivism is still a strong position for us. However, the most dangerous approach is to deal with phenomenon, events and processes from a singular or to put it more precisely fragmented point of view. This approach might become dominant with respect to not only general history but also our respective histories. If we still keep on mentioning the repetition of various problems, such an approach is amongst the significant causes of that kind of iteration. We still hover around the same phenomena and events in our approach to the history of women. We are still stumbling on something.
We need to be able to reveal women who have had great endeavors in all phases of history. They are pivotal figures. It is crucial to reveal all women identities ignored and excluded by patriarchy and to bind them with our values. We need to have a holistic approach in revealing those figures. We need to analyze them in line with a dialectical approach, criticize what there is and give meaning to what we discover accordingly. Let’s get to know the Goddess Hipatia. She has introduced many values to the history as a woman philosopher; the values that are concealed by the patriarchy Let’s illuminate all there is that is concealed. Let’s analyze and discuss why they have been concealed. In doing that, we need to know and discuss the stories of hundreds, thousands of women in Egypt, India, Rome and the forests of America who have been massacred, buried alive. We need to feel the deep pain of the loss of women in history. If we have a lively historical point of view, we can make our day more meaningful and guide our future with respect to an ongoing endeavor to learn and comprehend history. That’s what we are trying to do. However, we still have insufficiencies and lacks. If not, we would not be experiencing the same problems of ten years ago that we had already named at that time. Mostly, we appear to have new arguments. We cannot strengthen our standpoint with respect to our identity, if we don’t have a proper consciousness concerning our own history. A proper historical consciousness will always grant us ambition, belief and determination to struggle. All those discussions shall endow us with a proper historical approach, as it is in all domains. We still have insufficiencies with respect to the science of history, the philosophy of history. We need to sustain and deepen these studies. This is significant for both strengthening our historical point of view and giving our own history a stronger scientific expression. People living through this history, need to be able to write it. This approach with respect to history shall be inclusive so as to comprise of all these positions and it shall also reveal what should be as well as what there is.
There are no absolute truths; there are only interpretations of them. It is significant to have discussions and to strengthen the interpretations. However, we put a point instead of a comma, which hinders us to maintain and deepen our discussions. Jineoloji shall put all those issues in its agenda, that’s what is to be necessarily done. Another important point is that we don’t have strong historical materials in general and with respect to Kurdish women. This is also an important problem in our agenda. Whatever research we make of the history of Kurdistan, we come across with English materials. In saying that, our aim is not to ignore the researches of Kurdish intellectuals. However, they are so few in number. It is mostly the British people who have written books on the Middle East and especially on Kurds. The reasons for it are comprehensible for us, though. How can we have a proper historical consciousness out of the history written at the hands of British people? On the other hand, it is noteworthy to discuss how much research-investigation we make in that sphere. Although we have certain approaches to develop some sociological, cultural and ideological interpretations, we need serious researches on Kurdish history and Kurdish women.
It is mostly men who are active in anthropology discipline. It is an upmost requirement of Jineoloji to be related to anthropology both to know ancient societies and to adequately comprehend basic features of social developments from the cultural anthropology literature. Another basic tenant would be to find a cure to the ruptures amongst different disciplines of the social sciences and unify the discipline in general so as to make human and social reality comprehensible in all its dimensions. Therefore, developing a discipline of knowledge based on these tenets would help us to overcome the current impasse of social sciences. Jineoloji is not only interested in women, but all social problems, basically life itself so as to solve those problems based on a scientific women-oriented approach and it would be a domain to grant women with a systematic conscious arrangement intrinsic to the history and its timeliness.
Truth is as much the Nature itself as the human collectivism: Ecology
Ecology as the syntheses of all philosophical currents being the thought movement and production on natural existence and lively activities will also be one of the basic domains of Jineoloji.
The breakdown of human collectivity and the resulting natural destruction has reached an unbearable point today. We are face to face to a great crisis in ecology. We shall not search for the causes of this ecological crisis only in technology or the increase in population or the punishment of human beings by a super-natural power. When we investigate a bit the causes of this crisis, we come to see the mentality to dominate nature. As stated by Bookchin, “It is not enough to look at technics, demography, growth and unhealthy welfare to find out the origins of today’s ecological crisis; we need to look at the underlying institutional, spiritual and moral changes having produced hierarchy and hegemony in human society- not only bourgeoisie, feudal or antic societies or classed societies in general, but the society at the dawn of civilization.” This amounts to the development of power-oriented state mentality that causes ecological destruction as deterioration or deviation in history and its reaching an apogee in capitalist system. As humans lost their egalitarian and libertarian stand, social problems resulting from the development of oppressive and hegemonic stand based on lies and plunder occurred and caused significant problems for nature. With the domination of humans over humans, the domination over nature has also started. Eco-feminists have made a significant evaluation in that respect. Those feminists saying that we need an ecological revolution to save the worlds assert that the cause of the problem of women and nature is male hegemony and the system based on it. Saying that the domination over women paved the way to the domination over nature, they underline the fact that patriarchal mentality destroys whatever there is in nature. They mostly emphasize on the analogy between women and nature. Under the light of all those evaluations, it is clear that what causes the problem of ecology is five thousand years old patriarchy and the structures based on it.
Nature is a domain that is dominated and controlled by humans so as to be taken away from them with the banishment of women from life and freedom. Human beings as part of Nature have alienated to themselves, once they are estranged from it. Such a mentality and a life based on it have gone too far away from human-universe equation. Lack of such an understanding deepened the existing alienation and destructed the nature.
Alienation of humans to themselves, to their societies also resulted in their alienation to Nature. If this alienation is the result of a deviation, Jineoloji shall define the bonds between women and nature and human beings and nature.
In Neolithic society, the relationship between human beings and nature was highly alive and sustaining. Nature has a significant impact in all developmental phases of socialization. That’s why, it is said that socialized human beings are the socialized nature. “Nature expresses itself in human beings.” Human being, who became aware of herself via socialization, is the Nature which becomes aware of itself and makes itself understandable through humans. In that respect, the more the humans are socialized, the more they transform the Nature, socializes it. While human socialization is projected on the nature, the nature projects itself to human socialization based on the same principles. Nature reflects its colors, potentials and dynamism to humans and societies. It adds its power to the social power of the society. The more efficiently and properly we comprehend Nature, the more the society is comprehended properly and efficiently.
As women, we also need to rest on a democratic and ecologic society. Therefore, we are one of the fundamental forces to put ecological problems in the overall agenda and develop resolutions for them. It will also be the task of Jineoloji to once more develop a theory keeping eye on differences and bonds between nature and society in line with an ecological consciousness.
As we are in the era of differences, it is crucial to develop a structure compatible with the differences, harmony and order in Nature. Freedom means, in some sense, difference, variation, colorfulness and pluralism. Nature has an immense richness in that respect. It is important to see, know and feel this richness. Therefore, it is important to see which approach to nature becomes prevailing. When we adopt a libertarian point of view with respect to nature, we establish a relationship with nature based on harmony and a co-constructive relationship. We know it well from the Neolithic society. Back at that time, humans used to consider themselves as parts of nature. They used to attribute meaning to anything going through that nature. Via meaning- laden emotional intelligence, there used to be an ongoing transference from nature to humans and from humans to nature. Jineoloji will be the sphere to re-establish this transference. Based on these premises, we will at first propose an in-depth analysis of power-seeking state mentality and its structures causing ecological crises. We will give a new meaning and definition to especially human-nature, women-nature relations.
We always consider women as the first teachers with regard to discussions on the first phases of socialization. This is a correct finding. However, women have a teacher, being the nature itself. Women have created many inventions, meanings through the observation of nature. Jineoloji will take nature as its primary resource in its efforts to make researchers in ecology and define universe, society and collectivity. This will endow women with a stronger ecological standpoint. Women developing this ecological standpoint will also have an ethical-aesthetical power. Women will also have a strong standpoint and attitude in arts and culture. In order to attain all these objectives, Jineoloji should at first make a robust analysis of this power-seeking mentality from its own perspective. It is impossible to attain a proper and efficient ecological standpoint without overcoming this mentality. Once women attain an ecological standpoint, the union of analytical and emotional intelligence will be strongly put into life. They will reach more flexible and meaning-laden developments with regard to intelligence.
If truth is nature itself, as much as human socialization, Jineoloji will be the most significant struggle field to dig out this truth and attain to it.
Women are confined to failure without policies
Politics will be another issue to be dealt by Jineoloji. The reason for the existence of woman is her moral and political structuring. Morality is the means for women to freely contribute her existence, while politics is the power to implement it. The main task of politics is to procure moral rules and be determined to continuously create methods and means to cover basic mental requirements. A woman not knowing herself, not meeting with herself, not recognizing her existence, not discussing about her existence, not taking decision will of course be the biggest tool and ground for the sovereign system. The history of civilization has seen great materials in that respect. Five thousand years of patriarchal history has existed through destroying the moral and political power of women and building its own power instead. There is no other explanation of the history of civilization. Although various ideological and political masks have been used to conceal this reality, what is real is that patriarchal history is a culture of lies and plunder developed on the moral and political values of women. This history is where the sovereign male personality has developed ideologically, artistically and economically on slave subjects. Having a closer look at this history, we see master-slave conflict at the origin of all struggles. Therefore, an in-depth analysis of the relationship between woman and power is a must to build a strong moral and political stance.
“Politics and democracy are in truth identical concepts. If freedom is the climate in which politics expresses itself, democracy is the style of implementing this politics. Freedom, democracy and politics cannot lack a moral basis.”
It is impossible to have a political stance or a strong democratic consciousness without a moral outfit and development. Women have to consider and analyze power-based structures with a strong consciousness in order to attain a strong political consciousness and stance. Power and power-based structures can never be a preference for women aiming at freedom. Women willing to be free determine their objectives and principles only with respect to their own free will and power. She is required to determine strategic decisions as well as daily ones with respect to her will and power. The innovation to be brought by Jineoloji is to investigate the society, women and life and consider the reality revealed through proper knowledge as her will. Jineoloji based on social reality aims at preventing politics to be the domain of power. In that respect, Jineoloji has a corrective and critical role in politics.
One of our basic principles is that woman should have decision about herself in all spheres of life. In order to develop the right to take decisions and the power of the will of women, we need a radical renewal in our consciousness. We need to strongly develop our education and discussion platforms in order to attain that. Women who do not discuss well about themselves and their problems and who cannot come up with common grounds can never have an efficient political will. In that sense, what is important is to see how much we can discuss our own problems, the process, politics, culture, art, society and men. Such a strong will to discuss, analyze, criticize the existing situations and determine what shall be will promote an ongoing production in politics. However, we still have serious gaps in these spheres and the power-seeking mentality can fill in these gaps. Political gaps and insufficiencies might leave the door open to the state or men. The only way to overcome these challenges is to make politics on a conscious basis. We learn it not only from ourselves but also from the history of world women movements. The problem of politics has been a poignant question for women both in the history and today. Jineoloji enhances politics to have a proper definition by putting this problem in its agenda. Besides, it also tries to make politics efficient for both women and society.
One of the mostly discussed issues recently is the violence against women. The very mentality of the ruling AKP is a violence inducing mentality. What triggers and justifies violence the most is this mentality. How can we develop a solution without getting out of this mentality? Nowadays, AKP meddles with all spheres and problems of life. The resource of the problem cannot develop a solution. We can transform women into a political power and organization with the help of such agendas and projects. Jineoloji must be a domain to overcome and resolve such problems. It must especially be the domain to develop and strengthen women in the art of politics. Jineoloji must take not only problems stemming from outside world but also our own problems in its agenda and develop solutions to them. Jineoloji becomes an important domain for the moral and political society to become structural and functional. It must be able to situate politics strongly in its own axis as the common will and power of mind.
Let’s put a comma
Jineoloji as a scientific study shall be endowed with strong scientific data. Jineoloji is related to disciplines as history, sociology, economics, ecology, ethics and aesthetics. We need to determine how to develop a new understanding of science and method through research, investigation and discussions. This is a must to have a point of view, determine the proper method and have a strong interpretative capacity. We need an in-depth intensification and incorporation. We need to be able to benefit from many resources via an in-depth point of view. There are significant resources that might help us in method and pathways in both women problem and social sciences. We need to deepen our discussions through a strong interpretative approach in taking those resources in our agenda. What is important is to be engaged in a continuous working process.
Strengthening platforms for discussion, interpretation and analyzes would substantially change our agenda as part of the women’s movement. Most of all, it will help us concentrate on what is essential. It will help us more strongly determine our priorities. Women are in an ambitious production process in all spheres of life. They have been involved in ideological, philosophical, artistic, economic and scientific production. The energy and power to be attained out of this process will make us more efficient in all domains of study. At least, they will enlighten us more with respect to how we should live, how we should participate in life and what we should do. Enlightened woman will become enlightened man and an enlightened society. Jineoloji will thus be the enlightenment instrument for women. The more women are enlightened, the more they will shed a light to promote the struggle.